Regional, Systemic and Radiological Anatomy
For many postgraduates, especially trainee radiologists, the views offer a valuable reference, since so many imaging techniques display mainly as cross-section slices. — Raymond M. Kirk, Journal of Anatomy (more reviews)
VOXEL-MAN 3D-Navigator: Inner Organs is an new kind of anatomical and radiological atlas. It is novel in at least two respects:
- Unlike books or traditional multimedia programs, it allows interactive exploration of a detailed three-dimensional anatomical model. Each structure is labeled and described, and can thus be interrogated directly on the screen. The advantages of dealing with real anatomy are thus combined with the advantages of learning from a book (associated knowledge).
- Unlike traditional sources of knowledge, VOXEL-MAN 3D-Navigator presents the radiological manifestation of normal anatomy in the context of three-dimensional anatomy. It thus decisively improves the understanding of both X-ray and cross-sectional radiological images.
The program is based on a high resolution realistic body model based on the cross-sectional images of the Visible Human. It contains about 650 three-dimensional anatomical objects, mostly of the thorax and the abdomen, including nervous and cardiovascular systems.
The anatomical nomenclature is available in Latin, English and German, and a manual is available in English and German.
Using the mouse, the scene may be rotated, and objects may be added or removed. Furthermore, anatomical objects may be marked, searched for, painted, annotated, or described. Anatomical objects to be manipulated may also be selected from an object list. A textual instruction illustrates the possibilities available for the chosen scene.
The radiological manifestation of the organs can be viewed in the context of 3D anatomy. This includes simulated X-ray images where organs may also be highlighted, as well as cross-sectional images from the anatomy and from CT.
The program provides unique reference material not only for medical students, but also for professionals in all medical disciplines involving anatomy and radiology. However, also interested non-specialists can explore the inner structure of the human body using the 3D-Navigator.
The program was first published in 2000, with an improved version published in 2003.
- Karl Heinz Höhne, Bernhard Pflesser, Andreas Pommert, Kay Priesmeyer, Martin Riemer, Thomas Schiemann, Rainer Schubert, Ulf Tiede, Hans Frederking, Sebastian Gehrmann, Stefan Noster, Udo Schumacher: VOXEL-MAN 3D Navigator: Inner Organs. Regional, Systemic and Radiological Anatomy. Innere Organe. Topographische, Systematische und Radiologische Anatomie. Springer-Verlag Electronic Media, Heidelberg, 2003. (DVD, ISBN 978-3-540-40069-1).
- Bernhard Pflesser, Andreas Petersik, Andreas Pommert, Martin Riemer, Rainer Schubert, Ulf Tiede, Karl Heinz Höhne, Udo Schumacher, Ernst Richter: Exploring the Visible Human’s Inner Organs with the VOXEL-MAN 3D Navigator. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 81, 2001, 379-385.
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