Regional, Systemic and Radiological Anatomy
For many postgraduates, especially trainee radiologists, the views offer a valuable reference, since so many imaging techniques display mainly as cross-section slices. — Raymond M. Kirk, Journal of Anatomy (more reviews)
VOXEL-MAN 3D Navigator: Inner Organs is an new kind of anatomical and radiological atlas. It is novel in at least two respects:
- Unlike books or traditional multimedia programs, it allows interactive exploration of a detailed three-dimensional anatomical model. Each structure is labeled and described, and can thus be interrogated directly on the screen. The advantages of dealing with real anatomy are thus combined with the advantages of learning from a book (associated knowledge).
- Unlike traditional sources of knowledge, VOXEL-MAN 3D Navigator presents the radiological manifestation of normal anatomy in the context of three-dimensional anatomy. It thus decisively improves the understanding of both X-ray and cross-sectional radiological images.
VOXEL-MAN 3D Navigator: Inner Organs is based on a high resolution virtual body model, created from the cross-sectional images of the Visible Human. It contains about 650 three-dimensional anatomical objects, mainly of the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
The anatomy is presented in 19 interactive scenes that are accessed from a visual table of contents and can be explored and dissected in various ways. The interactive scenes cover a variety of topics such as 3D anatomy of the thorax, 3D anatomy of the abdomen, cardiovascular system, nervous system, X-ray images of the inner organs, and CT and cross-sectional anatomy of the trunk. 8 of the scenes are also available in stereoscopic (red/green) format.
Using the mouse, the scene may be rotated, and objects may be added or removed. Furthermore, anatomical objects may be marked, searched for, painted, annotated, or described. Anatomical objects to be manipulated may be selected in the image or from an object list. A textual instruction illustrates the possibilities available for the chosen scene.
The integrated knowledge base allows the interrogation of the model from the viewpoints of regional and systemic anatomy. The anatomical nomenclature is available in Latin, English and German, and a manual is available in English and German.
The radiological manifestation of the organs can be viewed in the context of 3D anatomy. This includes simulated X-ray images where organs may also be highlighted, as well as cross-sectional images from the anatomy and from CT.
The program provides unique reference material not only for medical students, but also for professionals in all medical disciplines involving anatomy and radiology of the trunk. Even laypersons can get fascinating insights.
VOXEL-MAN 3D Navigator: Inner Organs was first published in 2000 by Springer-Verlag, with an updated version published in 2003. Since 2018, it is available for free download under a Creative Commons license.
- Karl Heinz Höhne, Bernhard Pflesser, Andreas Pommert, Kay Priesmeyer, Martin Riemer, Thomas Schiemann, Rainer Schubert, Ulf Tiede, Hans Frederking, Sebastian Gehrmann, Stefan Noster, Udo Schumacher: VOXEL-MAN 3D Navigator: Inner Organs. Regional, Systemic and Radiological Anatomy. Springer-Verlag Electronic Media, Heidelberg, 2003. DVD, ISBN 978-3-540-40069-1.
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