Based on the male Visible Human, we created a virtual body model of the human torso and internal organs of unprecedented detail and realism. The anatomical and radiological images rendered by the VOXEL-MAN 3D visualization system give an impression of the quality and functionality of the model.
The model consists of 650 three-dimensional anatomical objects. The larger objects (bones, muscles, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, etc.) are represented as voxel objects and visualized using 3D rendering. The smaller ones like some blood vessels and nerves are modeled as surface objects.
In this view of the model, skin and body fat have been removed to reveal the muscles of the trunk. The images of this series were computed with an illumination by four light sources and shadow casting.
Different viewing modes such as anatomy and X-ray imaging can be combined as desired. The X-ray image can be interrogated at any point to determine which anatomical structures contribute to the displayed intensity.
An complete X-ray image of the internal organs. Any organ may be highlighted to assess its manifestation in the X-ray image. Here the small intestine is colored in purple, and the large intestine in yellow.
Removal of large portions of the digestive system reveals deeper structures. This view shows the hip bone with psoas and iliacus muscles, as well as various blood vessels such as the abdominal aorta, iliac arteries, and inferior vena cava.
Juxtaposition of the 3D anatomy model with one of Leonardo da Vinci‘s famous anatomical drawings (around 1500). It illustrates the evolution of anatomical knowledge representations from drawings to virtual body models.
View of the internal organs model with a transverse cut revealing the major blood vessels and nerves of the lower abdomen. At any place, the cross-sectional anatomy and its radiological manifestation in computer tomography (CT) can be explored.
The presented virtual body model provides the basis for the interactive anatomical and radiological atlas VOXEL-MAN 3D Navigator: Inner Organs, which is freely available under a CC license.
The underlying 3D model of the Segmented Inner Organs is available for research purposes.
- Karl Heinz Höhne, Bernhard Pflesser, Andreas Pommert, Martin Riemer, Rainer Schubert, Thomas Schiemann, Ulf Tiede, Udo Schumacher: A realistic model of human structure from the Visible Human data. Methods of Information in Medicine 40, 2 (2001), 83-89.
- Andreas Pommert, Karl Heinz Höhne, Bernhard Pflesser, Ernst Richter, Martin Riemer, Thomas Schiemann, Rainer Schubert, Udo Schumacher, Ulf Tiede: Creating a high-resolution spatial/symbolic model of the inner organs based on the Visible Human. Medical Image Analysis 5, 3 (2001), 221-228.
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